GFCFSF Ingredients and Substitutions


The following will help you navigate the many possible substitutions when converting to GFCFSF.

Flour Substitutes

Milk Substitutes

Oils, Margarines and Butter

Egg Substitutes

Sugars and Sweeteners


Vanilla and Vinegars

"Soy" and Worcestershire Sauce

Beef-Free Gelatin



There are many possible combinations of flours you can mix to use in recipes.

Please note that some commercial, pre-packaged GF baking mixes (like Arrowhead Mills) contain flours and other ingredients such as baking powder, salt, etc. There are also other commercial mixes (like Bob's Red Mill), which only contain flours.  Always read package labels carefully and research the ingredients!

Here are some of the most common:

  • Almond Flour
  • Pecan Flour
  • Rice Flour
  • Brown Rice Flour
  • Sweet Rice Flour
  • Potato Starch Flour
  • Potato Flour
  • Tapioca Starch
  • Sorghum Flour
  • Buckwheat Flour
  • Arrowroot Flour
  • Garfava Flour
  • Quinoa Flour
  • Navy Bean Flour
  • Cornmeal and flour
  • Amaranth
  • Lentil flour

Oat and Millet Flours, while naturally GF, are not considered safe for the GFCF diet or for our kids.  Most oat and millet are grown alongside, and/or manufactured with wheat and gluten products, therefore allowing contamination to happen, probably frequently and in great amounts.


Bean flours
I use the small white beans you find in bags at the grocery store. I hand grind them, which is my aerobics class for the day. I make tortillas using a combination of flours (1 part tapioca, 1 part potato starch, 1 to 2 part(s) rice, 1 part bean flour, 1 part arrowroot starch; the amount of each “part” depends how much you are going to make).  For each cup of flour mix, I add 1 tsp xanthan gum, 1 tsp baking powder, 3/4 tsp salt.  I make up a big batch of flour mix each time. Then, everyday or every other day, to 1 cup of flour mix,  I add 2 1/2 tbsp. of safflower, sunflower or sesame oil mixed with 1/4 cup water, and with my hands, I knead the mixture a little, using extra flour if necessary. Then, I make little balls and roll them flat with a rolling pin. I then put each circle of tortilla dough in a hot frying pan, with or without oil. Cook each tortilla until a few brown spots appear. This same recipe also makes crackers if you roll the dough thinner and fry the dough longer until it gets crispy. Rolling the dough so it’s thicker will make the tortillas softer after cooking them in the pan. I also add calcium and magnesium capsules to this mix for added nutrients.

When I grind my own bean flour, I make combinations of flours. When I saw that Garfava flour was so popular, I decided to combine my own. Fava beans are VERY expensive, so I haven’t used them yet.

I also use garbanzo beans combined with another kind of bean flour (about a 1/2 and 1/2 mix). So far, I’ve combined them with navy beans and anasazi beans. Anasazi beans are about the size and shape of great northern beans, and have a mottled maroon and white coloring. The inside of the bean is white. (I guess you could call my flours Garnavy and Garsazi flours.) I grind up about 3 cups of combined bean flour, and then use the following proportions. (I got this from one of Bette Hagman’s books)

  • 3 cups combined bean flour
  • 3 cups cornstarch or arrowroot
  • 3 cups tapioca starch flour
  • 1 cup rice flour (I use white rice flour)

I put this GFCF flour in a canister and then, use it in cookies, muffins, etc. I’ve been using my regular cookie recipes, and adding a 1/2 tsp. xanthan gum to each recipe. That seems to work well.

I tried coating fried chicken with this mixture, and it tasted too heavy. Instead, I prefer using rice flour, combined with tapioca starch flour and potato starch.

Grinding my own beans saves a lot of money! I bought 25 lb. bags of several kinds of beans -- garbanzo, great northern, navy, red kidney, cannellini, anasazi, and a couple of others. By grinding my own beans, I’m paying pennies on the dollar for bean flour.
Grinding my own beans saves a lot of money! I bought 25 lb. bags of several kinds of beans -- garbanzo, great northern, navy, red kidney, cannellini, anasazi, and a couple of others. By grinding my own beans, I'm paying pennies on the dollar for bean flour.


Substitute Bisquick
5 cups favorite bread style GFCF flour mixture
4 1/2 tbsp. baking powder
2 tbsp. sugar
2 1/2 tsp. salt
1 tsp. absorbic acid powder
1 cup solid shortening, i.e., palm shortening or 3/4 cup coconut oil/butter

Sift dry ingredients together. Cut in shortening with pastry blender until it resembles crumbs. Store in freeze for up to six months. Use in Bisquick 'Impossible' style recipes but watch for too much leavening when adding to recipes.


General Baking Mix #1 by Carol Fenster
1 cup rice flour
1/2-3/4 cup potato starch
1/4 cup tapioca starch/flour


General Baking Mix #2 by Carol Fenster
3 cups garfava bean flour
2 cups potato starch
2 cups cornstarch
1 cup tapioca flour
1 cup sorghum flour


Original formula by Bette Hagman
2 cups rice flour
2/3 cup potato starch
1/3 cup tapioca starch/flour


Four Flour Bean by Bette Hagman
2/3 cup garfava bean flour
1/3 cup sorghum flour
1 cup cornstarch
1 cup tapioca starch/flour


Featherlight by Bette Hagman
1 cup rice flour
1 cup cornstarch
1 cup tapioca starch/flour
1 tbsp. potato flour


Pastry mix
1/8 cup potato flour
7/8 cup Ener-G Foods rice flour


Cookie mix
1/4 cup chickpea flour
1 cup sorghum flour
1/4 cup sweet rice flour


Bread mix
1 cup brown rice flour
1/2 cup potato starch
1/2 cup sweet rice flour
1 tbsp. unflavored gelatin


GF Flour Mix I
1 1/3 cup millet flour
2/3 cup potato starch
2/3 cup sorghum flour
1/3 cup tapioca starch
2 tbsp. bean flour


GF Flour Mix II
3 cups sorghum flour
1 cup tapioca flour
1/2 cup almond flour

Sorghum is the GFCF flour that I like most. It isn’t gritty like rice, it isn’t bitter like quinoa and bean flour, and it isn’t as allergenic as corn and soy. It is darker and denser than some, but delicious. Tapioca flour is great for holding things together and gives a nice crisp crust. Almond flour is mild tasting and adds protein. Sorghum is higher in protein as well, making this flour great for autistic kids- getting protein in them is so important. You can make big batches of these flour mixes and keep them in the fridge for substituting. If your family is allergic to nuts, just leave out the almond flour.


GF Flour Mix III
1 cup Garbanzo Flour
1 cup White Rice Flour
1 cup Tapioca Flour


GF Flour Mix IV
4 cups brown rice flour
1 1/2 cups sweet rice flour (NOT white rice flour)
1 cup tapioca starch or tapioca starch flour
1 cup rice polish or rice bran
1 tbsp. xanthan gum or guar gum


GF Flour Mix V
2 cup brown rice flour
2 cup white rice flour
1 1/2 cup sweet rice flour
1 1/3 cup tapioca starch
2/3 cup corn starch
1/2 cup rice polish or rice bran or flour
2 tsp. xanthan gum
Sift together 3 times & store in canister.


Cookie Flour Mixture
2 cups sweet rice flour
2 cups rice flour
1/2 cup tapioca flour




There are a lot of types of milk substitutes available now. Here are just a few.

      • corn flour = potato flour
      • cornstarch = arrowroot or tapioca flour, garfava (bean) flour for baking and coating
      • baking powder = Featherweight brand or 1/4 cup baking soda + 1/2 cup cream of tartar + 1/4 cup potato starch
      • xanthan gum (from corn) = guar gum powdered sugar (has cornstarch) : grind from regular sugar
        • Vance's DariFree (vanilla and chocolate) Potato Milk
        • Almond Breeze Almond Milk (plain, vanilla and chocolate)
        • Hemp Milk (plain, vanilla and chocolate)
        • Rice Milk (many brands are available in local grocery stores, but make sure they are GFCF as some contain barley, flavors available are plain, vanilla, and chocolate; some are also organic and some are in the refrigerated section too, not just the dry section) May contain arsenic.
        • Pacific Foods Hazelnut Non-Dairy Beverage
        • Coconut milk
        • Coconut cream


        Milk Substitute Recipes

        Rice Milk 1
        1 cup of cooked rice - warm out of the pot
        4 cups warm water
        put in blender and puree
        add vanilla (1 tsp) or to taste - or almond flavor
        add honey to taste
        strain it
        throw out the rice crumbs
        drink the milk

        Put the cooked rice and warm water in the blender and puree. Add vanilla (about 1 tsp or to taste) - or almond flavor or honey.  Strain the mixture and throw out any rice crumbs. Now, drink the milk!

        It’s a lot cheaper to make your own rice milk. If you don’t like this recipe, change it to suit your needs. The rice milk will keep for one week if kept properly refrigerated. Discard after one week.


        Rice Milk 2
        4 cups hot/warm water
        1 cup cooked rice (white or brown)
        1 tsp vanilla

        Place all ingredients in a blender until smooth. Strain twice to be sure to remove any little rice pieces. You can also add almonds before blending for added calcium and to add body; you can also add any other calcium supplement you might want to use. I also recently found gluten-free brown rice syrup in my health food store. I added a little to the milk the last time I made it and you couldn’t tell the difference between the homemade and store bought.


        Rice Milk 3
        1 cup cooked brown rice
        2 cups water
        1/8 tsp. vanilla (gluten-free) or vanilla bean
        Sweetener of choice to taste (can use just a small amount of honey or pitted dates)

        Put all ingredients a blender and blend on high for 3 minutes. Strain through a sieve or cheesecloth. Can add more water for desired consistency.


        Almond Milk
        3/4 cup almonds, blanched
        1 tsp. honey OR 1 dried pineapple ring, chopped
        1/4 cup sesame seeds
        5 cups water
        1/4 tsp. salt
        1 tsp. gluten-free vanilla, or vanilla beans

        It is best to first grind the almonds in a coffee grinder. Place all the ingredients in a blender with only a small amount of the water. Blend well and then, add any remaining water. Line sieve with a cheesecloth and pour the almond milk through the cheesecloth. Chill before serving.


        Cashew Milk
        1 cup raw cashews, well rinsed
        1 cup hot water
        1/2 tsp. salt
        1/4 tsp. gluten-free vanilla (optional)
        OR buy some fresh vanilla beans at the health food store
        2 tsp. honey (or sweetener of choice)

        Grind cashews in a coffee grinder (your best option) or put them in a blender with water and blend well. Combine all ingredients in a blender and add an additional 3-6 cups of cold water to taste. Strain through a sieve to achieve a smooth milk. I save the leftover cashews from my sieve and throw them in my granola recipe.

        Cashew-Rice Milk or Cream
        2/3 cup cooked brown rice, warm
        1/2 cup cashews, raw and rinsed
        1 tsp. vanilla, gluten-free or fresh vanilla beans
        1/2 tsp. salt
        3-4 tsp. honey or sweetener of choice
        3 cups water for the milk or for the cream, just enough water to blend the ingredients for a thicker consistency
        1 banana (add only if making a cream for dessert-type recipes)

        In a blender, combine all ingredients and blend on high speed until smooth and creamy. It may take 2-3 minutes for the cashews to be thoroughly blended. Then, add more water, a little at a time, until desired thickness is reached. To make a cream, add as little water as possible to make a thick cream base for soups, gravies, and other recipes that need thickening. (Leave out the vanilla and the honey when making a cream for soups and gravies). For milk to use in cereals or in recipes, add the full 3 cups of water. Chill before serving.



        GFCFSF Margarines, Butters and Oils

        Not all substitutes are created equal and cannot merely be substituted 1:1. Information on oil/water content of available products.

        There is only one GFCFSF margarine substitute currently is Earth Balance Natural Buttery Spread Soy-Free.

        Oils for Baking

        • Canola oil **
        • Coconut oil/butter *
        • Flax seed oil
        • Macadamia nut oil
        • Organic lard *
        • Palm oil/palm kernel oil shortenening *,**
        • Safflower oil
        • Sunflower oil
        • Walnut oil

        Oils for sautéing

        • Olive oil
        • Rice bran oil
        • Sesame oil

        Oils for frying

        • Corn oil **
        • Peanut oil
        • Safflower oil
        • Sunflower oil

        Oils for Salad Dressing

        * The hydrogenated forms of these oils are very high in saturated and/or trans fats (the bad kind) and should be used judiciously.

        ** These oils are also used in biofuel products and may not be digested as well by people with ASD.


        Coconut Oil/Butter
        (substitute 3/4 cup coconut oil or butter for 1 cup shortening)

        If you want to substitute oil for butter, margarine, or shortening you should keep in mind that it can lend a greasiness to the finished product. It is not a direct substitute and any other liquid ingredients may need to be slightly reduced. Example: 1/3 to 1/4 cup oil = 1/2 cup butter, margarine or shortening.


        Using fruit butters in place of oils in recipes

        • Because the fruit will add more sweetness than butter, reduce the sugar in your recipes just a touch.
        • Think of the flavor of your recipe to judge which fruit flavor will work best. For example, prune puree works particularly well in chocolate desserts, such as brownies; and apples will add that festive fall flair to most quick breads.
        • In general, use 1/2 cup of pureed fruit in place of one cup of butter. You may need to add a tbsp. or two of vegetable shortening or oil back into the recipe (in addition to the fruit puree) to achieve the best results.
        • If you don't have fresh fruit on hand, drained applesauce, strained baby food fruit, or a puree of water with any dried fruit (apples, apricots, peaches, etc.) will work in a pinch. Try a mixture of 1/2 cup applesauce and 1/2 cup vegetable oil as an excellent replacement for butter in cakes and quick breads.
        • Of course, you could always get a little fancier with the following recipe:


        Apple-Pear Puree - Butter Baking Substitute

        Use 5 tbsp. of this substitute plus 2 tbsp. of oil for every 1/2 cup of butter called for baked goods recipes.

        • 2 medium Apples, cored, peeled, and cut into chunks
        • 2 medium Pears, cored, peeled, and cut into chunks
        • 2/3 cup Water
        • 1 tbsp. lemon Juice
        • 1 tbsp. lecithin granules (available in most health food stores)

        Put all ingredients in a saucepan. Bring them to a simmer, cover, and cook for 40 minutes, mashing occasionally. Press through a sieve to remove excess liquid (which you can reserve and use for other recipes if desired). This recipe will last for several days in the refrigerator and can be preserved in the freezer for up to 6 months.


        Pumpkin Butter

        • 15 oz can of pumpkin
        • 1/4 cup maple syrup
        • 1 tsp. cinnamon
        • 1/2 tsp. All Spice
        • 1/4 tsp. groundcCloves
        • dash nutmeg

        In a small saucepan over medium-low heat, mix together the pumpkin mush and maple syrup until they’re both fully combined. If you prefer your spread to be sweeter, don’t be shy and feel free to add in as much syrup as it takes to satisfy that sweet tooth. Have fun with it - it’s pretty hard to screw this recipe up.

        Continue to stir the pumpkin and syrup mixture slowly for about 10 - 15 minutes, or until the mixture had thickened to your desired consistency. The stirring is important though, so DON’T walk away! If you do, your pumpkin mixture may scorch and get burnt onto the bottom of the pan, and that wouldn’t be so tasty. The black bits really don’t look too attractive, either.

        Anyway, once you’ve determined your desired consistency, take the pan off the heat and mix in all your spices. I also add just a pinch of salt, because I believe that it helps round out all of the flavors and makes them a bit brighter, but yoeu don’t need to by any means. Enjoy!



        GFCF Egg Substitutes

        Two commercially available egg substitutes are NoEgg by Orgran and Egg Replacer by Ener-G Foods.

        Below are some simple substitutions:

        2 tbsp. corn starch = 1 egg
        2 tbsp. arrowroot flour = 1 egg
        2 tbsp. potato starch = 1 egg
        1 banana = 1 egg in cake recipes
        1 tbsp. ground flax seeds plus 3 tbsp. water = one egg

        Also, keep in mind that some children who are sensitive or allergic to chicken eggs may not have the same reaction (check with your child’s physician) to other poultry eggs, such as turkey, goose, quail, etc. These eggs can be found at farmer’s markets, Asian markets, or online. One mother said she put an ad in the paper to which a local farmer responded and supplied her child with turkey eggs.


        Egg Replacers

        Below are ideas I have found for egg white substitute although I know many people who have used egg white substitute to replace real egg whites. Egg white substitute is very goopy and so far, I have never tried it for gingerbread house icing glue. I may try it soon though. My 8-year-old son is dying to make a gingerbead house.


        Whole Flax Seeds
        Use 1 part seeds to 4 parts water (the seed sellers say to use 1 part seeds to 3 parts water, but they're in the business of selling seeds, aren't they?). Simmer for 5-7 min. Proceed as described under "Straining".

        For 1 egg, use 4 tsp. seeds to 1/3 cup water = 80 ml water (some will boil off).

        Efficient Method:
        Use 1 part seeds to 12 parts water, e.g. 4 tsp. seeds per cup of water, or 1 tsp. per 60 ml of water. Soak from 1 hour to overnight, whatever is convenient for you. Simmer for 20 min, and be sure to let gloop cool completely before straining.

        Allowing the gloop to cool with the seeds in it makes it thicker. When it is thick and cool enough, pour it into a bowl lined with cheesecloth. Gather up the edges of the cloth and gently squeeze out the gloop, until the cloth contains only seeds. (If you're trying to use a strainer and it works, your gloop is too thin! Simmer it a bit more..) Compost the seeds (or hide them somewhere in tonight's dinner?), and use the gloop.

        To replace 1 egg, use a scant 1/4 cup gloop ( 50 ml gloop)

        Ground Flax
        Many vegan-baking books suggest the use of ground flax seeds mixed with water as an egg substitute. I’ve tried this, and it is a good method for making baked goods that rise well and have a good texture. The down side is that the flax seeds have a strong and distinctive flavor, which is good in things that are meant to taste like granola, but not so good in things with more delicate flavors. I recommend this method for baked goods, which get a lot of their flavor from nuts and seeds.

        1 tbsp. ground flax seeds plus 3 tbsp. water replaces one egg. That’s 5 ml milled flaxseed plus 45 ml water Mix them together, and let it sit a couple of minutes (it gets wiggly!). Then, add as you would normally add eggs.

        Each egg substitute recipes is equal to one egg (recipes are based on large eggs where 1 egg = 1/4 cup liquid). Eggs are tough to substitute. The trick is figuring out the purpose of the egg in a recipe (binding, leavening, or both). When used in baking, eggs create leavening (rise) and/or binding, and provide richness, color, protein, and tenderness.

        If beaten, egg whites also provide extra volume and air. A good rule of thumb (read-not ALWAYS) is to base it on how many eggs are being used in the recipe. If a recipe uses 1 egg, typically they serve as binders. In these cases almost any egg substitute will work. If, however, the recipe uses 2-3 or more eggs, the purpose of the egg is to provide leavening. When in doubt, use substitutes that work to provide leavening. More than 3 eggs may be difficult or impossible to substitute successfully. And in some cases, only real eggs will work (e.g. angel food cakes and some brownie mixes) so check the recipe or box for details.

        Egg Recipes that are best used for binding or moisture ONLY---

        (I have not had any success with any of these recipes for chewy brownie mixes although one customer swears the flaxseed powder recipe works great for it):

        • 3 tbsp. any pureed fruit or vegetable (baby foods work great)
        • 1 tsp. pulverized flaxseed (grind in coffee grinder) placed in 1/3 cup water and brought to boiling. Let cool before using. Or the posted flaxseed recipe.
        • 1 tbsp. of any of the following PLUS 2 tbsp. warm water: unflavored, unsweetened gelatin OR pectin OR agar OR ground Flaxseed powder or carrageenan (or I have also seen where this amount is dissolved in 1 cup boiling water and then use 3 tbsp. of this mixture)

        Egg Recipes that can be used for leavening (rising) (and also can be used for binding):

        • 1 heaping tbsp. Egg-Replacer® plus 2 tbsp. warm water.
        • 1 heaping tbsp. baking powder*, 1 1/2 tbsp. water, plus 1 1/2 tbsp. oil.
        • 1 heaping tbsp. baking powder*, 1 tbsp. warm water, and 1 tbsp. cider or rice vinegar.

        *Note: If a corn-free or low-sodium baking powder is needed, use Featherweight Baking Powder. If you need it also to be potato-free or want to make your own use 1 heaping tbsp. of the following mixture:

        • 1/3 cup baking soda
        • 2/3 cup cream of tartar
        • 2/3 cup arrowroot starch

        Blend flours well and store in airtight container. The mix is not very stable since it starts reacting as soon as it is mixed so a scaled down version is below: 1 1/2 tsp. baking soda, 3/4 tsp. cream of tartar, and 3/4 tsp. arrowroot or potato starch flour.

        When using gluten-free products one might want to boost the leavening power or the egg recipe so I made the adjustments to the above egg recipes for leavening by boosting the leavening agents. Acidic agents such as lemon juice, buttermilk, vinegar, molasses, and other dough enhancers like ascorbic acid all help boost the leavening process too. It also helps greatly to use a high end electric mixer to beat extra air into the dough and create air pockets to trap these leavening gases.




        Real Food Living has a great site for information about sugar alternatives and substitution help.

        Converting a recipe from sugar to honey:

        Honey is three times as sweet as sugar, so the conversion factor is 3:1. Reduce liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup for each cup of honey used in baked goods. Add about 1/2 tsp. baking soda for each cup of honey used in baked goods. Reduce oven temperature by 25 degrees to prevent burning.

        Converting a recipe to Agave Nectar:

        White Sugar - For each cup of white sugar replaced, use 2/3 of a cup of agave and reduce other liquids by 1/4 to 1/3 cup. This substitution will also work for Demerara Sugar, Turbinado Sugar, Evaporated Cane Juice, or Sucanat.

        Brown Sugar - For each cup of brown sugar replaced, use 2/3 of a cup of agave and reduce other liquids by 1/4 cup. Because the moisture content of Brown Sugar is higher than that of white sugar, liquids may not have to be reduced as much when substituting agave nectar.

        Honey or maple syrup - Replace each cup of honey with one cup of agave syrup.

        Brown Rice Syrup - When replacing a cup of brown rice syrup, use 1/2 to 1/3 as much agave, and increase other liquids in the recipe by up to 1/2 a cup.

        Corn Syrup- When replacing a cup of light corn syrup, use 1/2 as much agave, and increase other liquids in the recipe by up to 1/3 of a cup. Like corn syrup, agave nectar will not crystallize.

        Agave syrup may cause baked items to brown more quickly, so reduce oven temperatures by 25°F is and increase baking time slightly.

        Stevia Conversion Chart (White Powder Extract Only)
        1/4 tsp. Stevia white powder extract = 1 cup sugar in sweetness. To make a liquid solution, dissolve 1 tsp. Stevia white powder extract into 3 tbsp. distilled water. Refrigerate in a dropper bottle.

        Granulated Sugar Stevia Powder Extract
        1/2 cup 1/8 tsp.
        3/4 cup 1/5 tsp.
        1 cup 1/4 tsp.
        3.75 lbs. 0.3 ounces
        10 lbs. 0.8 ounces
        200 lbs. 1 pound

        Adapting favorite family recipes and baked goods to stevia may take several trials. Baked goods made without sugar don't brown well and need to be checked with a toothpick for doneness. Sugar adds volume to a recipe as well, so the liquid and dry ingredients will need to be drastically adjusted when just a dash of stevia is used.

        Yeast and Stevia

        When substituting sugar, you need to keep the following issues in mind:

        1. How much sugar are you substituting? If substituting only a small amount, say less than 1/4 cup, you can use Stevia (just add enough as needed based on taste preference-actually taste the batter). In small amounts, you can just delete the sugar since it is non-essential many times when used in small amounts. If substituting larger amounts, you need to recognize that the sugar is now serving the purpose of bulk in the recipe and that added amounts may affect texture and taste. Here is where you may need a bulking agent to increase the volume since Stevia is a very concentrated sweetness (30-40x sweeter than sugar in bulk), and add this in addition to the Stevia to your recipe.
        2. Which sugar substitute are you using? If it’s a liquid substitute and more than a few teaspoons, you may need to adjust the total amount of liquid in the recipe to accommodate for this added liquid. Often, you need to cut back about 1/3. The recipe may not actually tolerate the sugar change. Honey & other “substitutes” caramelize at lower heats and may burn. You need to check the package.

        I like the Ultimate Sweetener (from birch bark) as a sugar substitute because you can use it in equal substitution for any amount sugar (its the same sweetness, moisture content, & granulation) without altering the recipe. And you can even add one tablespoon of molasses to each cup of Ultimate Sweetener to make mock brown sugar.

        Other substitution choices:

        • Rice Syrup
        • Wax Orchards' Fruit Sweet and Pear Sweet (also corn-free)
        • Ultimate Life's Ultimate Sweetener
        • Honey
        • Xylitol
        • Agave nectar (low glycemic index)




        Powdered Sugar without Corn

        It is important to know that practically all commonly, commercially available powdered sugar contains cornstarch, which means if your child is allergic to corn, you must find a corn-free alternative to regular powdered sugar.

        My family also does not use cornstarch, because corn is now genetically modified in the U.S. But I discovered that it is very easy to make your own powdered sugar. Take a spice grinder and put in any kind of granulated sugar. Turn it on. Voila, instant powdered sugar!

        Non-corn syrup candy: Try a health food store. These specialty stores have all kinds of organic candies that do not use corn syrup. There are also a lot of non-organic ones there that do not use corn syrup.

        If you ever need to replace cornstarch, arrowroot powder (available in health food stores) can be used exactly as cornstarch. We make puddings and use it as an egg replacer also. It works great.

        Corn-free subsitutions:




      Vanilla and Vinegar

      Vanilla extract is typically on an alcohol base, which usually does contain some gluten. Some Celiac people say the amount of gluten in a recipe made with it is too small to matter, and for some it's too much. It is possible to find gluten-free vanilla (all pure Nielsen-Massey vanillas are gluten-free) made with corn alcohol. The vanilla paste and vanilla powder are both gluten-free. Your other option is just to use whole or ground vanilla beans, which do not contain gluten. In any recipe which has a liquid phase, simply steep the bean in the liquid, or add ground beans to the dry phase of the recipe. It is also possible to make your own gluten-free extract with vanilla beans, using a non-wheat based alchol such as corn alcohol or very strong potato vodka.

      Authentic Foods Vanilla Powder, Frontier Foods Vanilla and other ready-made products are available online from retailers such as



      White vinegar or just plain vinegar are typically distilled, and if so, are gluten-free. Distilled vinegar can be distilled from wheat, corn, potatoes, beets, wood, apples, and many other things. Most in the U.S. are not made from wheat, but are instead made from corn, potatoes or wood, which are all GFCF safe (Heinz white vinegar is distilled from corn).

      Distilled vinegar made from wood is gluten-free. Wood-based vinegar is often the vinegar used in processed foods.

      Flavored vinegars are made with white distilled vinegar, to which flavorings are then added. Some of these may also NOT be gluten-free (the cheapest vinegars are used since the flavors are masked by the herbs and flavoring).

      Malted vinegars are usually not gluten-free.

      Red and white wine and balsamic vinegars are gluten-free.


      "Soy" Sauce

      Just because you have eliminated soy from your child's diet doesn't mean you still can't have those fabulous Asian dishes! You can BUY this product - Coconut Aminos GFCFSF "Soy Sauce". Here are a few recipes for soy sauce substitutes:
      "Soy" Sauce 1

      4 tbsp. beef bouillon
      4 tsp. balsamic vinegar
      2 tsp. dark molasses
      1/4 tsp. ground ginger
      1 pinch white pepper
      1 pinch garlic powder
      1 1/2 cups water

      In a saucepan over medium heat, stir together the beef bouillon, balsamic vinegar, molasses, ginger, white pepper, garlic powder and water. Boil gently until liquid is reduced to about 1 cup, about 15 minutes.


      "Soy" Sauce 2

      240ml/8fl.oz Molasses
      90ml/3fl.oz. Balsamic Vinegar
      Sugar to taste

      Place all the ingredients in a mixing bowl and mix until well blended.


      Worcestershire Sauce*

      1/2 cup apple cider vinegar
      2 tbsp. "soy" sauce
      2 tbsp. water
      1 tbsp. molasses
      1/4 tsp. ground ginger
      1/4 tsp. dry mustard
      1/4 tsp. onion powder
      1/4 tsp. garlic powder
      1/8 tsp. cinnamon
      1/8 tsp. pepper

      Place all ingredients in a medium saucepan and stir thoroughly. Bring to a boil, stirring constantly. Simmer 1 minute. Let cool.  Store in the refrigerator. Makes about 3/4 cup. Shake well before using.

      *Be careful when purchasing Worcestershire Sauce as some brands are made with malted vinegar which are usually not gluten free.


      Beef-Free Gelatin Substitute

      Most all commercially available gelatins, including Knox powder and Jell-o are made from beef. There are many foods that also contain beef-derived gelatin such as marshmallows and vitamin capsules.  Below are substitutes that are vegan-friendly.

      Agar agar powder and flakes is derived from seaweed
      Hint: It sets up a bit softer than animal gelatins so you may wish to use a little less water than the instructions say.

      Konjac (konniyaku) is made from a tuber similar to a potato.
      Hint: I am able to get that in the frozen section of my local Asian store.  Some Asian stores sell prepared konjac jelly cups in fruit flavors.

      Carrageenan (from red seaweeds)

      Locust bean gum (from the seeds of the Carob tree)

      Pectin (from apple or citrus-fruit)